Cost analysis of inclusive education: results of the Support Mainstreaming Inclusion to all Learn Equally (SMILE)

Main objectives

This economic evaluation estimates and analyses the cost of inclusive education in eight schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria.


This cost efficiency study was designed and conducted to analyse the cost of SMILE’s model of disability-inclusive education in Kaduna State, in order to provide evidence on the efficiency of the approach and the potential cost of scaling up the implemented activities across the state.

Added value of the study

The costing analysis suggests that the activities piloted and implemented could be sustainable and scalable given their apparent affordability and efficiency. It also adds evidence on the cost of inclusive education in low and middle income countries in an area where there is close to no data.

Policy and practice implications

This study will hopefully bust the myth that inclusive education is too expensive, inform decision makers on the economics of inclusive education and further help its integration in mainstream education.

Study details
Start date
1 January 2021
Finish date
1 October 2023
Main contact
Guillaume Trotignon
Senior research associate - economics
  • Ministry of Education, Kaduna State
  • UK Aid
  • Inclusive Futures