The purpose of this study was to assess individual compliance with annual ivermectin treatment in onchocerciasis-endemic villages. A multi-site study in eight APOC-sponsored projects in Cameroon, Nigeria and Uganda was undertaken to identify the socio-demographic correlates of compliance with ivermectin treatment. A structured questionnaire was administered on 2305 persons aged 10 years and above with two categories of respondents purposively selected to obtain both high and low compliers. Some demographic and perceptual factors associated with compliance were identified. Compliance was significantly higher among men, adults and those that saw benefits of treatments. The authors conclude that efforts to increase compliance with ivermectin treatment should focus on providing health education to youth and women. Health education should also highlight the benefits of taking ivermectin.