Sightsavers Reports

The impact of climatic risk factors on the prevalence, distribution, and severity of acute and chronic trachoma

Trachoma – the leading cause of infectious blindness – is spread through contact with infected persons by hands and towels, and by ‘eye-seeking flies.’ Trachoma prevalence is high in areas characterised by poverty, inadequate water supply, and poor sanitation. Trachoma is controlled by the SAFE strategy: S = surgery to the upper eyelids; A = antibiotics for active infection; F = facial cleanliness; and E = environmental improvement. In this study we reviewed the scientific literature to assess the extent to which climatic factors (e.g., rainfall, heat, dust, altitude) influence trachoma distribution. A systematic review of the literature found eight papers that measured an association between a climatic factor and trachoma in children or adults. Several studies reported that trachoma is less common at higher altitudes, indicating that temperature may play a role in trachoma transmission. Some studies also reported that trachoma is higher in areas with low rainfall, which is consistent with anecdotal evidence that trachoma is associated with dry environments.

A health worker distributes medication to children outside in Zimbabwe
Type
Journal Article
Theme
NTD
Date published
07/11/2013
Journal
PloS neglected tropical diseases
Format
PDF
Language
English
Relevant links
http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0002513&type=printable
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